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The Hippie Dictionaryhippie a member of a counterculture that began appearing in the early 1960s, which expressed a moral rejection of the established society. Derived from the word hip, meaning roughly “in the know,” or “aware.” Numerous theories abound as to the origin of this word. One of the most credible involves the beatniks, who abandoned North Beach, San Francisco, to flee commercialism in the early 1960s. Many of them moved to the Haight-Ashbury area of San Francisco, where they were idolized and emulated by the young University of San Francisco students in the neighborhood. The beats (the hip people) started calling these students “hippies,” or younger versions of themselves. Actually, the counterculture seldom called itself hippies; it was the media and straight society who popularized the term. Most often, we called ourselves freaks or heads. Not until later did we begin calling ourselves hippies, and by then we were "aging hippies." An alternate spelling seldom used by people in the know was “hippy.” (See: freak and head)

freak a self-denigrating term used by hippies to describe themselves. Early on, the hippie counterculture was characterized as “a freak of society” by the straight culture, so, in defiance, hippies adopt the word freak and used it themselves. In some uses, it was spelled “freek.” During the hippie era, most hippies did not refer to themselves as hippies; we often called ourselves freaks. Hippie is what everyone else called us.

flower power the power of peaceful, nonviolent action. Pacifism, the turning of one’s cheek, the religion of righteousness and believing that what is right will eventually prevail. The nature of a flower is quiet tenacity, a strong self-preservation hidden by delicate beauty and sensitivity; this is the spirit of the liberal intellectual human being called the hippie.

Kent State University at Kent State University in Kent, Ohio, on May 4, 1970 (12:24 p.m.), four young people were killed and nine others wounded when National Guardsmen fired on student anti-war demonstrators. William Schroeder, Allison B. Krause, Sandra Scheuer and Jeffrey Glenn Miller were killed, and Dean R. Kahler, one of the wounded, was paralyzed for life. (See: Anti-War Events, Groups and Leaders starting on page 562 in Lists at the back of this book)

**Kerouac, Jack (b. Jean Louis Lebris de Kerouac, March 22, 1922, Lowell, Mass.; d. October 21, 1969) writer, personality, considered to be the father of the beat movement, therefore the grandfather of the hippie movement. Definitely the predominant author of beat literature. He studied at Columbia University, 1940-42; served in the Merchant Marine, 1942-43, and the Navy in 1943. He studied at the New School for Social Research, held various jobs, and traveled throughout the United States and Mexico from 1948-51. On The Road, written in 1951 and published in 1957, was a semi-autobiographical story of his travels with Neal Cassady. In the book, he was "Sal Paradise"; "Carlo Marx" was Allen Ginsberg, and “Dean Moriarty” was the name he gave Cassady. The book instantly established Kerouac as a spokesman for the beat generation. He is credited as one of the creators of the "stream of consciousness" style of writing, which he called “spontaneous prose.” Kerouac hung out with the New York City and San Francisco beat intellectual group to which Allen Ginsberg, William Burroughs, Jr., Lawrence Ferlinghetti, George Corso, Gary Snyder, Diane di Prima, LeRoi Jones and Frank O’Hara belonged. Fame disturbed Jack Kerouac; he drank heavily and tried to escape. His last major work, Big Sur, in 1962, described the price he paid for success. Kerouac lived out his final years back in Lowell with his mother. Other books by Jack Kerouac are The Town and the City (his first), 1950; The Dharma Bums, 1958; The Subterraneans (about a happy love affair with a Black woman), 1958; Doctor Sax, 1959; Mexico City Blues, 1959; Book of Dreams, 1961; Desolation Angels, 1965; and Satori in Paris, 1966.

**One of the 35 most influential people of the hippie era.

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